"demonstrating how companies can adapt software, hardware and business models for a circular economy. They show the changes companies could make, which parts of the supply chain might benefit most and which consumers are likely to be most receptive."

Three types of intervention that can be made – hardware, software, and business model.

"Slowing the production cycle means making phones that last longer, which allows the resource and energy drain of each device to be spread over time. Extending lifespans is about designing more durable products, capable of being easily and inexpensively repaired or upgraded. It’s also about extending the lifespan of components, by harvesting parts from e-waste to reuse as spare parts or in new phones. "

"Design choices to extend product life include 1) material selection, i.e. whether the plastic or metal is non-virgin and is suitable for clean recycling, 2) accessible components, so that devices can be easily repaired and later disassembled, 3) availability of software updates, repair manuals, and spare parts."

A circular economy for smart devices
Summary: "This report identifies how laptops, tablets and smartphones, which are up to five years old, can be profitably recovered and resold in the UK, US and India. It describes six business models that companies can use to adapt to consumer preferences for lower cost, longer-lasting electronics, and how reuse can bring the benefits of internet connected devices to new consumers in the developing world. "